THE FOREST OF ARDEN
|If you just want some tree pictures, there are a lot more pictures, and bigger ones, on the on the Warwickshire Trees and Woods page,|
and the Warwickshire's Leafy Lanes page.
The name still occurs in the names of two small towns in the region Hampton-in-Arden (8 miles West of Coventry) and Henley-in-Arden (8 miles West of Warwick). In Medieval times Henley-in-Arden was the capital of the heart of the region.
Virtually no Roman roads cross the region. It has been suggested that this was due to the difficulty of building roads through woodland. The Arden area is effectively bounded by Roman roads (shown in red on this map): in the West by the Ryknield Street, in the South by the Salt Road (the modern Alcester to Stratford Road), in the East by the Fosse Way, and in the North by the Watling Street.
The area of the Forest of Arden correlates with an area of underlying Mercia Mudstone (shown in light brown) and Carboniferous Sandstones (grey). More details of the geology on the Geology of Warwickshire page. Sherwood Forest lies 40 miles to the North, on the same band of Mercia Mudstone, which forms a narrow arc across England.
The contrasting area of Warwickshire South-East of the Avon consists of much more open countryside. This overlays a band of Jurassic Lias Clay soils (shown in dark brown). In contrast to the Arden, the South-East area of Warwickshire is traditionally known as Feldon. The historian Dugdale speaks of the Avon dividing the "wooded part" from the Feldon.
The dominant tree in the Arden area of Warwickshire is oak. In some villages approximately 90% of the large trees are oaks. The subsoil here is a generally a heavy deep clay. Digging a small hole, after about 9 inches down will hit clay, which is what oaks like, and many other trees don't (Oak cultivation notes). The heavy clay soil is less favourable to agriculture and so was less susceptible to being cleared for farmland.
Manor House at Baddesley Clinton
The Place Names of Warwickshire, p316, notes 85 such place names in Warwickshire, almost all within the Forest of Arden area. The name is rare in Warwickshire outside the Arden region (only 4 occurences outside).
A "leah" could be either a man-made clearing, or a natural glade or open space. Some place names are based on the name of a family, but many have simple woodland meanings. Here are a few:
Allesley, Ansley (hermitage in a leah), Aspley (aspen leah), Astley (eastern leah), Baddesley-Clinton (leah owned by Clinton), Baddesley-Ensor (leah owned by Ednesouere), Bentley (bent grass leah), Birchley (birch leah), Botley (bot=firewood), Canley, Corley (cranes forest), Crackley, Darley (deer leah), Fillongley, Haseley (hazel leah), Henley (high leah), Honiley (honey leah), Ipsley (leah on a hill), Keresley, Kingley, Knightley, Langley (long leah), Oakley (oak wood), Pinley (pinn=slope), Pooley (pool leah), Ragley (rag=moss leah), Ratley (rot=merry), Saltley (sallow=willow), Shelley (leah on slope), Shirley (shire leah, where a moot is held), Shrewley (sheriff's leah), Stoneleigh (stony leah), Studley (pasture for horses), Tackley (tack=sheep), Walmley (warm leah), Waverley (waver=brushwood), Whitley (white leah), Willey (willow leah), Windley (winn=meadow).
The picture above right shows modern lightly wooded landscape at Baddes-ley Clinton. The picture below shows oak trees near Stone-leigh. There are some oak trees in Stoneleigh Park over 500 years old, though even these trees date from times much later than the Roman or Saxon periods.
' target="newwin"Grand oak trees border the road near Stoneleigh
This picture shows the main road from Kenilworth to Coventry, as it approaches Coventry.
It is an avenue over a mile long with broad verges, backed by banks of mature oak and beech.
The district of Stoneleigh, shown just above, lies about 2 miles away to the South-East.
Kenilworth Road, near Coventry
Much of the Forest of Arden was cleared during the Middle Ages, and some of it earlier.
By the time of Domesday, 1086, about 35% of North West Warwickshire is known to have been wooded.
Despite clearance, the entire area today still retains a wooded character. Everywhere can be seen oak trees, in small copses, in hedgerows, or marking places where hedgerows have been.
See also Warwickshire's Leafy Lanes.
Landscape near Fen End
Bannam WoodThe medieval capital of the Arden region was the market town of Henley-in-Arden. There are still several woods around Henley-in-Arden. This picture shows Bannam Wood.
|Bannam wood is a mixed decidous wood. |
Generally the inside of the wood is darker than in this view.
|This is a more typical view of the inside of the wood.
It shows one of (several) large fallen birches.
|This picture is taken on the edge of Bannam Wood, looking out over the countryside South of Henley-in-Arden. There are several other woods visible in this picture and on the horizon.
The picture was taken on a hazy day. I hope to replace this with a better picture with improved visibility.
Exploring the Forest of Arden by TrainThe Stratford to Birmingham railway runs up through the centre of the Forest of Arden, and provides a convenient way for visitors without a car to see the area, and to visit Henley-in-Arden and the other principal villages in the area.
There are some pictures, taken from the train, and details of stops en route at:
Bluebell drifts in Park Wood, near Coventry
There are 32 species of native British trees: alder, crab apple, ash, aspen, beech, birch (2 species), box, wild cherry (2), elm, hawthorn (2), hazel, holly, hornbeam, juniper, lime (2), maple, oak (2), scots pine, poplar, rowan, service tree, whitebeam, willow (4) and yew.
The ecological values of trees can be measured by the number of different insects they host. Oak hosts 284 species; followed by willow (266); birch (229) and blackthorn (149). Sweet and horse chestnuts are popular as specimen trees on village greens in Warwickshire, but are foreign imports. Horse chestnut was introduced, in the 16th century from Turkey, and only hosts 4 insects.
The dominant tree in the Arden area of Warwickshire is oak. Silver birch is common (the 2nd most common tree in English woodlands) and grows very quickly. Ground left open here will first be covered by bramble and birch, and then, as oak grows up through and over it, the oak takes over. Elm used to be common in Warwickshire hedgerows, but was mainly wiped out by Dutch Elm disease about 10 years ago.
Shakespeare seems to have compared Arden with the Biblical Eden. Life in the forest contrasts with the "fallen" world outside the forest. There are several allusions to the Biblical story in the play. The Forest is a magical place, where strange coincidences occur, strange apparitions appear, and where people are transformed through self-discovery, or by finding love.
|In many parts of Europe the oak tree and the oak forest was considered sacred.
There is a thorough treatment of this subject in James Fraser's The Golden Bough. The text of this book is available on line. Some interesting chapters are:
There are many more photos of the countryside in the Arden area,
including some pictures outside and inside Withycombe Wood near Stratford-upon-Avon,
on the Trees and Woods page. Also see the Henley-in-Arden page.
Here's a really good (American) tree site: Champion Trees.
Short History of British WoodlandsDuring the last ice age, 12,000 years ago, there were no trees at all across England. At the end of the ice age, trees began to move northwards from Southern Europe. 5,000 years ago, England was largely covered by wildwood. Pollen analysis shows that the commonest tree, throughout central and southern England was the lime.
Much of the extensive natural woodland covering of England was cleared in pre-Roman times. By the time of the Norman Conquest only around 15% of England remained wooded. Substantial areas of woodland remained in Warwickshire and Middlesex. These pre-Norman woodlands were not deserted wall-to-wall-forest, but contained within them clearings, natural and man-made, and thriving communities, raising pigs and other livestock, and sustainable harvesting of timber for building and for charcoal.
1066 - Norman Conquest. The Norman Kings wished to claim large areas of woodland for sport, and introduced the concept of Royal Forest. These designated areas included both wood, meadow and farmland. About 25% of England was brought under "Forest Law", with severe penalties for poaching the King's game.
In the 12th Century the Royal Forests became means for raising money, though fines and other mechanisms. Nobilty could buy leases from the Crown to farm areas of the Forest.
By the 16th Century English Kings had ambitions for national power and independence particularly against Catholic Spain. This demanded charcoal for iron, and timber for shipbuilding. The tanning of leather required the use of oak bark, which was another major demand specifically for oak. Large areas of forest were sold to enterprising nobility. A third of the entire Forest of Dean was felled in one year.
The 17th Century marked England's rise as a seafaring nation. To build a single large warship required 2,000 mature oaks. Only 12% of England remained wooded, and declining woodland became cause for concern. Within 80 years the number of oaks in Sherwood Forest alone had dwindled from 23,000 to 1,300.
By the 18th Century there was a shortage of naval timber, and the start of programs to plant new forest. By the end of the 18th Century several millions of new trees had been planted.
Regeneration of Forest of ArdenIn 1989, the UK Countryside Commision were investigating the possibility of creating a new National Forest. The combined local authorities of the Warwickshire area proposed a plan to regenerate the Forest of Arden. This map, from their proposal document, shows the proposed area of the new forest. This would have been similar to the area of the original forest, with the exceptions that the City of Coventry, and the Eastern perimeter of Birmingham, which did lie within the old forest, would have been excluded from the new forest. The new forest would not have extended South beyond Warwick. This is not a plan to introduce wall-to-wall forest, but to increase the proportion of land under woodland. The plan would have involved planting 150 million trees, including a high proportion of oak, in the area. For various political and economic reasons, no progress has been made to accomplish this.
On the contrary, the greatest pressures now operating in the region come from development and construction companies, wanting to build new housing estates, new roads, a new National Football stadium, major extensions to Birmingham Airport, and numerous others.
|There is one notable modern forestation scheme in the area. This is a private initiative being run by Mr Felix Dennis, owner of the lad's magazine Maxim. Mr Dennis is buying between 10,000 and 20,000 acres of land across South Warwickshire, at a cost of up to £200M, specifically for the purpose of planting new broadleaf woodlands.|
Be sure to visit the
Warwickshire Countryside Views
Heart-of-England Main Page
Index of Locations
E-mail John Webb